The name 'biting midge' reflects the general presence of functional mandibles in adult female ceratopogonids, and their almost universal absence in the Chironomidae. However, in South America, … E-mail address: lieven@biologie.fu‐ functional feeding group (FFG) in Bogak, Kerian and Serdang rivers of Kerian River Basin showed that there were 120 genera from 59 families of 13 orders of macroinvertebrates. common name: biting midges, no-see-ums scientific name: Culicoides spp. Biting midges can be a nuisance to campers, fishermen, hunters, hikers, gardeners, and others who spend time outdoors … The Ceratopogonidae, comprising some 4000 species worldwide, are known as the biting midges, to contrast with their sister group, the non-biting midges (Chironomidae). A functional feeding group refers to the type of food resource that a particular species utilizes in the stream. Functional Feeding Groups in the Carmel River 2000 - 2003 Samples collected during the fall season from mid-Carmel Valley at the CRRR site (see Fig. Studies on Neotropical … 5.7.1-A) had the most functionally balanced BMI assemblages (diverse feeding groups), while spring samples collected at Cachagua from the CRCA site had the least functionally balanced BMI assemblages. (Insecta: Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Introduction - Distribution - Description - Life Cycle - Medical Significance - Management and Prevention - Selected References Introduction (Back to Top). Functional Feeding groups The FFG classification was developed by Cummins (1973) and adopted in multiple eco-logical projects. Larvae of some species of Ceratopogonidae also are known to be predators, feeding on protozoa, small worms, and tiny larvae of insects. Functional feeding groups in tropical rivers helps in understanding organic matter processing, energy flow, trophic relationship and management activities. Feeding strategies are typical traits reflecting the adaptation of species to environmental conditions. Predator mainly Odonata, Hemiptera and Coleoptera was the most common group and found in high densities in Bogak River (modified river) and Kerian River (main river). BHL Twitter Feed Now Online 161,428 titles 263,184 volumes 58,939,912 pages Recent Additions Functional Morphology and Phylogeny of the Larval Feeding Apparatus in the Dasyheleinae and Forcipomyiinae (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) Alexander Fürst V. Lieven. functional feeding groups (FFG). For example, a forested stream full of leaves may have invertebrates which are shredders, i.e. The relative abundance of functional feeding groups can reflect the types of food available in a stream. Macroinvertebrates show different specializations with regard to food obtainment, allowing classifications based on different functional feeding groups (FFGs). (2005). Wallace and Webster, 1996, Merritt et al., 2008 established 5 different functional groups: gatherers, shredders, filterers, scrapers and predators. Index of Trophic completeness) and the structure of functional feeding groups (FFGs) could form part of a unified measure across communities differing in taxonomic composition. In particular, this classification system played a key role in the development of the River Continuum Concept (Vannote, Min-shall, Cummins, Sedell & Cushing, 1980), a concept that greatly advanced our understand- they shred the leaves. The four major functional groups are: Collectors (filtering and gathering) – This group includes organisms that filter small particulate organic matter from the water column. The feeding habits of relatively very few species of Ceratopogonidae have been studied in detail, but females of some are known to be predators, feeding on the body fluids of small insects that they capture. Dominance of, or loss of, a particular group … The use of invertebrate functional groups to characterize ecosystem attributes in selected streams and rivers in south Brazil. This concept is currently developed in some water quality systems (e.g.