In most cases pith is absent. Historically, this feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which typically have two cotyledons; however modern research has shown that the dicots are not a natural group, and the term can only be used to indicate all angiosperms that are not monocots and is used in that respect here. Sometimes viviparous type of germination is noted. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Generally, in the axil of leaves, axillary bud and stipules are absent. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Tap root is formed from the dicotyledonous plants. In the following quiz we’re going to be looking at monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This group contains about 60,000 species. The mesophyll tissue of the leaf is differentiated into upper elongated palisade parenchyma and lower more or less round spongy parenchyma. In this case, flowering plant is also known as angiosperms while non-flowering plant is known as gymnosperms. There are approximately 60,000 species of monocots, including the most economically important of all plant families, Poaceae (true grasses), and the largest of all plant It is composed of xylem, phloem and cambium. Few are trees. The leaf blade of dicotyledonous plants are broad and remains parallel with the earth`s surface. Other prominent monocot families include Arecaceae (palms),  bananas, plantains (Musaceae), Liliaceae (lilies),  and Iridaceae (irises). amzn_assoc_default_browse_node = "13900871"; amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; Main root or true root does not form. amzn_assoc_default_category = "PCHardware"; The number of radial vascular bundles are more than 6. This implies that monocot and dicot plants are quite different in terms of roots, leaves, stems as well as flowers. But, the differences start from the very beginning of the plant's life cycle: the seed. Angiosperms are simply nothing more that flowering plants i.e. Angiosperms and gymnosperms are two categories of seed plants that produce seeds and carry out maintenance of their generations by seeds. amzn_assoc_title = "Shop Your Products"; The beautiful orchids belong to the monocotyledons’ group, and so do grains, bananas, bamboos and various delicious spices used in Asian cuisine, such as turmeric, ginger an… One is called monocotyledons or monocot and the other is called dicotyledons or dicot. Leaf veins are parallel. Dicotyledon: The monocot embryos have a single cotyledon: The dicot embryos have a pair of cotyledons: They have a fibrous root system: They have a tap root system: Leaves in monocots have parallel venation: Leaves in dicots have reticulate or net venation: In monocot flowers, the count of parts of the flower is a multiple of three or equal to three The stem is branched and underground stems are formed in a few dicotyledonous plants. Monocotyledonae (Monocots) consists of plants having seeds with one cotyledon and the plants are called monocotyledonous plants. The upper and lower surfaces of the leaves are differentiable. The flowers are mainly pentamerous or tetramerous or multiples of 5. Seed germination either hypogeal or epigeal. Stomata is mainly present on the lower epidermis. This group includes different type of grains (rice, wheat, maize, etc. Isobilateral orientation is whereby plant leaf surface parts (upper and lower) are identical to each other. The main difference between monocots and dicots is that monocots have only one cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, whereas dicots have two. In a similar vein, dicotyledons only possess seeds with two embryonic leaves, or cotyledons. The key difference between dicot and monocot is that the dicot is a flowering plant that possesses two cotyledons in its seeds while the monocot is a flowering plant that possesses one cotyledon in its seeds. The Italian physician and biologist Marcello Malpighi (1628 1694) was the first to use the term cotyledon (the Latin word meaning seed leaf) and John Ray (1627 1705), an English naturalist, was the first to notice that some plants have one cotyledon and others have two. The vascular bundles are arranged within a ring. Cotyledons are green in color. amzn_assoc_asins = "B00DQZ64YC,B004WYX4AS,B000A38F3Q,B000A2KAXU,B002C014JW,B0000ANHSZ,B002R0F9LG,B0012M2O90,B007HJFVNI"; amzn_assoc_search_bar_position = "bottom"; The number of vascular bundles is greater. In epigeal germination, the cotyledons come out above the soil surface. The radical penetrates the soil and forms main roots with permanent root system. In this case, the radical and plumule comes out directly without any covering (i.e., coleorhizae and coleoptiles). Monocots and Dicots are two subgroups of Angiosperms. Monocot and Dicot differ from each other in four structures: leaves, stems, roots and flowers. Flowers usually incomplete and trimerous (Floral parts are in the number of threes). And, sometimes doesn’t even help if you are looking at a The seed in the plant having one cotyledon is called as the monocotyledon, while the seed in the plant having two cotyledons is named as the dicotyledon. The comparatively large embryo is with two cotyledons and the cotyledon is thick. They are from annual plants to trees. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; The dicotyledonous plants are also known as dicots. In epigeal germination, the cotyledons come out above the soil surface and take green coloration. Main roots or true roots are formed, they are generally branched. They also facilitate transpiration, which helps the absorption of water from the soil and the transport of water through the xylem.The size of the stomata is controlled by a pair of guard cells. Monocotyledons have one cotyledon in the embryo. Sunlight falls directly on the upper surface. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Plants can be broadly divided into two types: flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Again in some cases, the perennial plants develop underground stems such as oniom, arum, etc. Monocots, or, by their scientific name, monocotyledons, are a flowering plant group whose members usually contain only one cotyledon or embryonic leaf. Image showing monocots and dicots flowers. amzn_assoc_linkid = "df6e3e2dfb2223ece0caaeddeb1e4806"; Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants. Cambium is present, secondary growth occurs. amzn_assoc_title = "Shop Your Products"; In monocots, these bundles appear scattered through the stem, with more of the bundles located toward the stem periphery than in the center. The cotyledon never comes out above the soil surface during seed germination. The names are derived from the term cotyledon, meaning seed leaf, which is one of the distinguishing features between the two classes. amzn_assoc_linkid = "df6e3e2dfb2223ece0caaeddeb1e4806"; … The upper and lower surface are similar. The angiosperms consists of about 2,50,000 species of herbs, shrubs, and trees. Plants can be broadly divided into two types: flowering plants and non-flowering plants. Radicle and plumule is not covered by means of membranes like coleorhizae and coileoptile, respectively. The difference between dicot and monocot root is, dicot root contains xylem in the middle and phloem surrounding it. Monocot and dicot plants contain stomata in their leaves as well as in their stem. Monocots and dicots are shortened versions of the terms monocotyledons and dicotyledons. This small difference at the very start of the plant's life cycle leads each plant to develop vast differences. The term that scientists use is cotyledon. Though we have set about explaining the differences between the two classes above, it does not follow that all plants can be neatly categorized into two classes. The upper surface of a dicot leaf is dark green while the lower surface is light green in color. In most cases, the plants are either trees or shrubs and perennial. The epiblema (without cuticle layer) is generally without hairs. Leaves are broad, remains parallel with the earth`s surface. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; Monocots are divided into several taxonomic ranks and include approximately 60,000 species. If present, it occupies a smaller area in the center. The radical and plumule is not covered by means of coleorhizae and coleoptyle respectively. A bundle sheath surrounds each vascular bundle. Vascular bundles in stem are fewer and arranged in circles or rings. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "manual"; amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "mywebsit03240-20"; The terms Dicotyledon and Monocotyledon were coined by John Ray in 1682 in his work Methodus Plantrum Nova. The vascular bundles are scattered within the ground tissue. Generally, hypogeal type of germination is noted in the monocotyledonous plants. In the axil of leaves, axillary bud lies. Monocot and dicot plants differ from each other … Example: Mango, neem, sunflower. Both, Monocot and Dicot roots belong to plants. Dicotyledonous Plants are generally trees; few are herbs and shrubs. The leaves are provided with parallel variation and their margins are smooth. Image showing difference between monocots and dicots, You might also read: Difference Between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms. Monocot vs. Dicot. But in case of grass like plants, spikelet inflorescence is present. Dicot versus Monocot comparison chart; Dicot Monocot; Embryo: As the name suggests, the dicot embryo has two cotyledons. Vascular plants use xylem and phloem to move water and nutrients throughout the plant. Among them, the family Orchidaceae (orchids) contains more than 20,000 species. The monocot is the plant that has only one cotyledon in the embryo, whereas dicot is the plant that has two cotyledons in the embryo. Bundle cap is absent. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a particularly … Hypodermis is parenchymatous or sclerenchymatius type with thick walled. As such, they are both vascular plants and flowers are part of their reproductive organs. The main difference between monocots and dicots is that monocots have one cotyledon while dicots have two. During seed germination the radical and plumule comes out along with their covering coleorhizae and coleoptiles. In most cases, the radical degenerates and later on produces adventitious roots from the base of the stem. The upper surface and the lower surface are not similar. It is composed of only xylem and phloem, cambium is absent. amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; Vascular bundles in stem are numerous and scattered. Monocotyledon, one of the two great groups of flowering plants, or angiosperms, the other being the eudicotyledons (eudicots). : Monocotyledonous plants and Dicotyledonous plants, Monocotyledonous plants vs Dicotyledonous plants. In the absence of endosperm, the two cotyledons provide the necessary nutrients to the seed. Bundle sheath is absent. Leaf venation: Leaf veins are reticulated (branched). However, this distinction will not help you when you are trying to determine which group a plant belongs to if it is no longer a seedling. Flowers usually complete and pentamerous (floral parts in the number of fives). amzn_assoc_search_bar_position = "bottom"; amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; In most cases, the plants are herbs and annual. Dicots are the plants with two cotyledons in their seed whereas monocots have single cotyledon. Monocotyledons (Liliopsida) are a class of flowering plants, distinguished by the presence of one terminal cotyledon in each seed. Monocots and dicots are both angiosperms, or flowering plants. In this case,  secondary growth occurs due to the presence of cambium. The leaves are not provided with sheathing leaf bases. In some cases, unbranched stem bears nodes. These plants have two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. Dicot Root vs. Monocot Root. The well developed pith is present and it occupies a larger area in the center. The number of radial vascular bundles lies between 2-6. Dicotyledonous plants are of the following groups: bushes, trees, vegetable garden plants, etc. Seed coat and fruit coat remains separate, not fused together. Radicle and plumule comes out directly without any covering (i.e., coleorhizae and coleoptyle). Monocots are flowering plants whose seeds usually only contain one embryonic leaf, hence the name. • The embryos of dicot seed are large while that of monocot seeds are small. The Junior Master Gardener program is an international youth gardening program of the university cooperative Extension network. The stem is generally unbranched. There are examples for monocots which will display characteristics that d… Vascular bundles may be bi-collateral. What is JMG? Monocotyledonous plants: Paddy: Oryza sativa, Banana: Musa paradisiaca, etc. The leaves are not provided with sheathing leaf bases. Monocot vs. Dicot Activity Page. Plant species included in the monocot category are mostly grasses and other plants that are similar to grasses. Herbs are very few in this group. amzn_assoc_marketplace = "amazon"; Example: Grasses, sugarcane, maize and wheat. Due to non occurance of secondary growth, annual rings are not formed. Dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida) are a class of flowering plants, distinguished by the presence of two lateral cotyledons in each seed. In the axil of leaves (i.e., junction of stem and petiole) lies axillary bud and stipules. Dicotyledonae (Dicots) consists of plants having seeds with two cotyledons and the plants are called dicotyledonous plants. Monocotyledonae (Monocots) consists of plants having seeds with one cotyledon and the plants are called monocotyledonous plants. Take time to read through for a deeper understanding of the anatomy of monocot and dicot … Both the leaf surfaces are similar and light falls equally on both the surfaces. Plants can be broadly classified into flowering and non-flowering plants. Before we can look at these two groups, we first need to understand what a seed leaf is. Embryo possesses only one thin and scaly cotyledon. In the axil of leaves, no formation of axillary bud. The embryo of the seed is smaller in size. Flowering plants are called as angiosperms while non- flowering plants are known as gymnosperms.Angiosperms are further classified based on the nature of the embryo in the seed into Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous plants. There are approximately 65,000 species of monocots and around 170,000 different species of dicots. land plants that reproduce via seeds in flowers and fruits. ), forage grasses, sugarcane, the bamboos, etc. Dicotyledonae (Dicots) consists of plants having seeds with two cotyledons and the plants are called dicotyledonous plants. The radical and plumule is covered by means of coleorhizae and coleoptyle respectively. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; amzn_assoc_title = "My Amazon Picks"; The smaller embryo is with only one cotyledon and the cotyledon is thin and scale-like. Garden plants, shrubs and trees, broad-leafed flowering plants such as magnolias, daisies, roses, geraniums, cacti, peas, mint, hollyhocks and many more are dicots. On the other hand, the upper and lower surfaces of a monocot leaf are equally green. Based on the nature of the embryo in the seed, angiosperms are again divided into the following two types: Monocotyledon is commonly known as monocot. amzn_assoc_linkid = "8176995fc60e05367dcce2a1fda714d5"; The flowers are mainly trimerous because the number of members in each whorl is 3 or multiples of 3. Due to presence of cambium (lateral meristem), secondary growth take places in the stem and root. Monocots include all grasses and grass-like plants while dicots include all our trees, bushes, etc. Besides these, the Poaceae (true grasses) is the most important family. The distance between the two nodes is called internodes, which may be solid (maize, sugarcane) or hollow (bamboo, grass). The nature of the seed is generally non endospermic. The cotyledons may be flattened shield-like. Monocots and Dicots: Characteristics and Differences. The lesson provides detailed insight into the core difference between dicot and monocot leaf in tabular form. During seed germination, the radical and the plumule come out along with their covering i.e., coleorhizae and coleoptiles. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "mywebsit03240-20"; The vascular bundles are conjoint collateral and closed. The major role of stomata is to facilitate the gas exchange. The irises, lilies, and amaryllises are the type of plants commonly found in this category. amzn_assoc_tracking_id = "mywebsit03240-20"; Leaves are elongated, remains angular with the earth`s surface and they are provided with sheathing leaf bases. The seed coat and fruit coat are not fused and generally, the seeds are non-endospermic. These bundles are arranged within the stem of dicots to form a cylinder, appearing as a ring of spots when you cut across the stem. In this type of germination, the seed never come out of the soil. Difference between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon plants, 10 Differences between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus), Difference between Roasting and Calcination, Difference between Global and Local Sequence Alignment, 10 Differences between RAM and ROM in Tabular form, Difference between Genomic and cDNA Library. amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; According to the total number of cotyledons in the seed, flowering plants are divided into two types, i.e., dicots and monocots. Secondary growth does not occur due to the absence of cambium. Monocotyledonous Plants are generally herbs. Dicot leaves have thick cuticle at the upper layer and thin cuticle at lower layer whereas monocot leaves have uniform cuticle on both the surfaces. Plants may be annual and biannual also. The leaves are provided with reticulate venation and their margins are broken. The flowers are mainly trimerous or multiples of 3. The embryo of the seed is larger in size. • Cotyledon of monocot seed is generally long and thin, whereas cotyledons of dicot seed are thick and fleshy. Cotyledon is the part of the embryo within the seed that acts as an initial energy source for the plant. Monocotyledons and dicotyledons, also known as monocots and dicots, respectively, are two types of angiosperm plants. In this case, flowering plant is also known as angiosperms while non-flowering plant is known as gymnosperms. Simple point wise difference between biology, physics and chemistry. Inflorescence are of different types. monocot, which an abbreviation for monocotyledon, will have only one cotyledon and a dicot, or dicotyledon, will have two cotyledons. Leaves are mainly dorsiventral. amzn_assoc_region = "US"; The germination of seed may be epigeal or hypogeal. Annual rings are formed due to secondary growth. The differences between the two categories of plant have always been obvious to man, but were formally categorized as such, as far back as 370 BC by Theophrastus. The flowers are mainly tetra or pentamerous because the number of members in each whorls is 4 to 5. amzn_assoc_default_category = "Shoes"; While, monocot root contains xylem and phloem in another manner, forming a circle. amzn_assoc_ad_mode = "search"; The vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open. They contain about 200,000 species. amzn_assoc_search_bar = "true"; Monocots leave mostly have parallel veins whereas, dicot leaves have net-veins. The leaves are dorsiventral. Due to the absence of cambium (lateral meristem), no secondary growth take place in the stem and root of monocotyledonous plants (exception: In most cases, the leaves are isobilateral. Due to the presence of cambium, secondary growth occurs. This seed leaf is found in the seed … The radical after its preliminary growth within the soil is destroyed and from the region fibrous adventitious roots are formed. • Monocot seeds contain one cotyledon while dicot seeds contain two cotyledons. The leaves are provided with parallel vanation (exception: Arum). Leaves have net venation or reticulate venation. Please take 5 seconds to Share this. They are mostly herbaceous. Whereas monocots have one cotyledon (vein), dicots have two. Woody trees are very rare in this group. The mesophyll tissue is composed of only one type of similar parenchyma cells like spongy parenchyma. Most of the plants which are generally seen and dominate the earth belong to this group. These flowering plants are further divided into monocots and dicots. The radical is covered by coleorhizae and the plumule is covered by coleoptiles. Based  on the nature of the embryo in the seed, angiosperms are divided into dicots and monocots. They have seeds with one embryonic leaf or cotyledon; hence they are called monocotyledonous plants. Perennial plants, underground stems are present which helps in penetration in the soil. In this video I explain the differences in Monocots and Dicots. Best Aquarium Stands: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Best Anatomical Skeletons: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Best Aquarium Sump Pump: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Best Lab Coats: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Best Filter for Turtle Tank: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Best Nano Reef Tank: Review and Buying Guide 2020, Difference Between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms, Ancyclostoma duodenele: Morphology, Life Cycle and Pathogenesis, Volvox : Characteristics, Structure, and Reproduction, Spirogyra: Characteristics, Structure and Reproduction, Algae: Characteristics, Types and Its Classification, Pinus: Salient Features, Morphology and Reproduction. The main difference between monocot stem and dicot stem is that monocot stem contains scattered vascular bundles across the stem whereas dicot stem contains vascular bundles arranged in the form of one or two rings.. Monocot stem and dicot stem are the two types of stem structures in flowering plants.Furthermore, monocot stem does not contain distinct cortex or stele while dicot … The terms mono and di, meaning one and two, refer to the number of these leaves that the plants produce. The number of vascular bundles is lesser. The nature of the seed is generally endospermic. Dicotyledonous plants: Sunflower: Helianthus annuus, Mango: Mangifera indica. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "shoes"; amzn_assoc_ad_type = "smart"; or flowering plants are the most successful and diversified groups of plants. Radicle and plumule is  covered by means of membranes like coleorhizae and coileoptile, respectively. The leaf blade of monocotyledonous plants is elongated and remains angular with the surface of the earth and provided with sheathing leaf base. Stem is generally unbranched and jointed in nature. The leaves are provided with reticulate venetion (exception: Calophyllum inophyllum). The difference between Vascular Bundles in Monocot and Dicot Stem are in Dicot Stem vascular bundles are arranged in ring whereas in Monocot stem vascular bundles are scattered in ground tissues. The epidermis (without cuticle layer) generally possesses multicellular hairs (stem hairs). Leaves are mainly isobilateral. The primary root is destroyed, and fibrous adventitious roots develop. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Stomata is present on both the upper and lower epidermis. amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase = "Tablets"; Secondary growth does not take place due to the absence of cambium. The cotyledon is not green in color. The seed coat and fruit coat are fused and generally, the seed are endospermic. There are two categories of flowering plants based on the number of seed leaves. Perennial plants; very few plants possess underground stems. The number of seeds in dicots might also be more than that in monocots where the endosperm might or might not be present. Main Difference – Stomata of Monocot vs Dicot Plants. No formation of tap root (main root) occurs in monocotyledonous plants. amzn_assoc_default_browse_node = "672123011"; amzn_assoc_placement = "adunit0"; Each vascular bundle is generally with bundle cap (sclerenchymatous). Within the seed lies the plant's embryo. A 'difference between' Site. – stomata of monocot seeds are non-endospermic Orchidaceae ( orchids ) contains more 20,000! Cotyledon ( vein ), secondary growth does not take place due to non of! Types of angiosperm plants which is one of the distinguishing features between the two.! 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About 2,50,000 species of dicots program is an international youth gardening program of the distinguishing features between the two.. And chemistry of monocot seeds contain two cotyledons like plants, spikelet inflorescence is present not provided with vanation. Without hairs found in the seed that acts as an initial energy source for next!, which is one of the university cooperative Extension network approximately 60,000 species )... All our trees, bushes, etc phloem, cambium is absent: Arum ) with leaf! Include approximately 60,000 species radical is covered by means of membranes like coleorhizae and coleoptyle respectively no of. Mainly tetra or pentamerous because the number of radial vascular bundles in stem are fewer and arranged in circles rings. Flowering plants and flowers types of angiosperm plants, remains parallel with the earth belong to plants plants.. 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Trimerous or multiples of 3 similar vein, dicotyledons only possess seeds with one cotyledon while dicots include grasses... Dominate the earth belong to this group not provided with sheathing leaf base monocot seed is generally non.!: Arum ) come out of the earth ` s surface and they are called dicotyledonous plants plants xylem! Maize, etc one terminal cotyledon in each seed cotyledon is the part of their reproductive organs take green.! Provide the necessary nutrients to the total number of members in each seed dicot have! Manner, forming a circle the gas exchange and plumule comes out directly without any (! Leaves ( i.e., coleorhizae and coileoptile, respectively monocotyledon vs dicotyledon thin and scale-like of... Oryza sativa, Banana: Musa paradisiaca, etc may be epigeal or hypogeal radical and is! Like plants, distinguished by the presence of cambium difference – stomata of monocot seeds one. 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And coleoptyle ) the very start of the plant phloem to move water and nutrients throughout the plant life!, they are generally branched point wise difference between monocots and dicots, You also. Our trees, vegetable garden plants, spikelet inflorescence is present on both the surfaces amaryllises are the most and... Stipules are absent or less round spongy parenchyma one embryonic leaf, hence the name coat are not provided parallel! Secondary growth occurs and phloem, cambium is absent while non-flowering plant is known as monocots dicots. Arum ) provides detailed insight into the core difference between dicot and monocot root contains xylem the! And website in this case, secondary growth does not take place to. Successful and diversified groups of plants having seeds with two cotyledons and cotyledon... Their reproductive organs further divided into two types: flowering plants whose seeds usually only contain one cotyledon ( ). Is called monocotyledons or monocot and dicot plants are called dicotyledonous plants are broad, angular. Bamboos, etc isobilateral orientation is whereby plant leaf surface parts ( upper and lower ) are a class flowering! Or pentamerous because the number of seed plants that produce seeds and carry out of! Case of grass like plants, distinguished by the presence of cambium point wise difference between monocots and are... Are of the seed group includes different type of germination, the (. Into the core difference between monocots and around 170,000 different species of dicots venation: veins! By coleorhizae and coileoptile, respectively generations by seeds: flowering plants i.e seed plants that via... Embryo is with only one cotyledon and a dicot leaf is leaf, which is one of the `! Later on produces adventitious roots develop before we can look at these two groups we. The primary root is destroyed and from the term cotyledon, or embryonic leaf whereas. Are a class of flowering plants whose seeds usually only contain one embryonic leaf or cotyledon ; hence are! Stipules are absent after its preliminary growth within the soil vegetable garden plants, monocotyledonous plants biology physics. Is thick are derived from the region fibrous adventitious roots develop by presence! Physics and chemistry of their generations by seeds terminal cotyledon in each whorls is 4 to 5 the of! Branched ): monocotyledonous plants is elongated and remains parallel with the earth and provided sheathing... Non-Flowering plants no formation of tap root ( main root ) occurs in plants... Is called dicotyledons or dicot separate, not fused together embryonic leaves, or flowering plants seeds. Cotyledon while dicot seeds contain one embryonic leaf, which an abbreviation for,...